Sunday, July 22, 2012

Drug Testing and Detection Periods of Commonly Abused Drugs

There are various methods to check for drug abuse by an individual. Various testing methods like urine test, saliva test, hair test, sweat test are done to identify whether or not a specific drug or metabolite (substance formed after processing in body) is present in body. The time after last drug consumption for which the drug as metabolite can be detected is called the drug detection period. The range of detection periods depend on amount and frequency of drug use, type of drug, metabolic rate, body mass, age, sex, and overall health.

The five most commonly abused drugs are Marijuana, Cocaine, Opiates (Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine), Amphetamines (Amphetamine, Methamphetamine), and Phencyclidine (PCP). Misusing metabolites of all these drugs also considered as drug abuse. In addition, misusing prescription drugs like Opioids also considered as drug abuse or substance abuse.

Urine Drug Testing:
The detection period for drug abuse depends on the pH level of the urine sample. For Marijuana, it is 2-3 days for single use and 12 days for chronic abuse. For Cocaine, it is 2-4 days (it may vary if there are any kidney disorders). The detection duration for opiate drugs like Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine is 2-4 days. For Amphetamine and Methamphetamine, detection period is 2-4 days and 3-5 days respectively. For Phencyclidine (PCP), it is 7-14 days for single use and 30 days for chronic abuse.

The detection period of Cannabis is 2 to 7 days for single use and 1 to 2 years for prolonged use. For Phenobarbital and Methadone, it is 7 to 14 days and 3-5 days respectively. For Barbiturates (except Phenobarbital) and Cotinine, it is 2-3 days and 2-4 days respectively. For LSD it is 2-24 hours and for Ecstasy (MDMA) it is 1-3 days.

Hair Drug testing:
The detection period for drugs is dependent on the length of the hair sample. The detection period for Marijuana is approximately 90 days as it is less sensitive compared to other drugs. For Cocaine is upto 90 days. And for opiate drugs like Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine, it is 90 days. For Amphetamine and Methamphetamine drug detection duration is 90 days. For Phencyclidine (PCP) it is 90 days.

The detection period for Cannabis is 2 to 7 days for single use and 1 to 2 years for prolonged use. The detection duration for Phenobarbital, Barbiturates, Cotinine, and Ecstasy is up to 90 days. The substance detection time for Methadone is upto 30 days. The detection time for LSD is up to 3 days.

Saliva Drug Testing:
The detection time for Marijuana is 12-24 hours in saliva drug testing. The detection time for Cocaine is 1-3 days. For opiate drugs Heroin, Morphine it is 1-3 days. The detection time for Amphetamine and Methamphetamine is 1-3 days. The detection time for Phencyclidine (PCP) is 1-3 days. The substance detection time for Cannabis is 2 days. For Phenobarbital it is 4 to 7 days. And for Methadone it is 24 hours. The detection time for Barbiturates (except Phenobarbital) is 1-2 days. The detection time for Cotinine is 2-4 days. The detection time for LSD is 0-3 hours. And for Ecstasy (MDMA) it is 24 hours.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Teenagers and Drug Abuse

A person between the ages of 13 to 19 is called a teenager and a drug is such a substance that can change our normal body working if we have or take it. There are two types of drugs- medical drugs and non-medical drugs. Medical drugs or medicines are used to kill pains; get rid of cough; kill bacteria; cure diseases; reduce swelling or make a patient unconscious during the operation which are legal and prescribed ones by doctors.

On the contrary, non-medical narcotics are those which are taken for their non-medical effects on the mind and body. Therefore, a drug here is an illegal substance for the physical and mental effects which is put inside the body by smoking, injecting or eating. The effects of these drugs may include the stimulation or sedation (slow down) of the mind - a temporary boost to physical performance in sport, a feeling of emotional well being or in body building. The misuse of the non medical drugs is called Drug Abuse which is illegal and can cause physical and mental harm. Thus abuse of drug is non-medical use of legal or illegal drugs for physical or psychological reasons. The person who takes the illegal drug is called a druggie.

Furthermore, when a druggie takes a narcotic, the feelings and mental state exposed by him/her are often very different to that person's actual normal life behavior. Some of the illegal drugs are LSD, mescaline or Schedule I, amphetamines, cocaine, narcotics or schedule II, and heroin (hard drug). Tobacco and alcohol are also non-medical drugs. If a person starts taking these narcotics, s/he becomes a druggie and later a drug addict who cannot stop or give up using drugs.